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COVID-19 vaccines for kids: What you ought to know

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are actually open to children in the U.S. Some tips about what parents and kids have to know concerning the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine, the possible unwanted effects, and the advantages of getting vaccinated.

If children don’t frequently experience severe illness with COVID-19, why do they want a COVID-19 vaccine?

A COVID-19 vaccine and booster, updated to the most frequent strain of the herpes virus that triggers COVID-19, might stop your child from obtaining the COVID-19 virus or becoming seriously ill or hospitalized because of COVID-19.

Obtaining a COVID-19 vaccine might help your son or daughter more safely take part in sports along with other group activities too.

What COVID-19 vaccines, additional primary shots and boosters can be found to kids in the U.S.?

In the U.S., COVID-19 vaccines can be found to children by generation:

  • Ages six months through four or five 5 yrs . old. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has given emergency use authorization to a Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for children ages six months through 4 yrs . old. This vaccine requires three shots. The initial two shots receive three to eight weeks apart. The 3rd shot is given at the very least eight weeks following the second shot. Research demonstrates the three shots have produced antibody levels much like those in adults after obtaining the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine.

    The FDA in addition has given emergency use authorization to a Moderna COVID-19 vaccine for children ages six months through 5 yrs . old. This vaccine requires two shots, given four to eight weeks apart. Its estimated that vaccine is approximately 51% effective in preventing COVID-19 in babies ages six months through 23 months. For kids ages 2 through 5 yrs . old, the vaccine is estimated to be 37% effective in preventing COVID-19.

    Both vaccines contain small amounts of mRNA compared to the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines for teenagers and adults.

  • Ages 5 or 6 through 11. The FDA has given emergency use authorization to a Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for children ages 5 through 11. This vaccine involves two shots, given three to eight weeks apart. It includes a lower level of mRNA compared to the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine useful for people age 12 and older. Research demonstrates this vaccine is approximately 91% effective in preventing COVID-19 in this generation.

    The FDA in addition has given emergency use authorization to a Moderna COVID-19 vaccine for children ages 6 through 11. This vaccine requires two shots, given four to eight weeks apart. For kids in this generation, the Moderna vaccine causes an immune response much like that observed in adults.

    Both vaccines contain small amounts of mRNA compared to the COVID-19 vaccines for folks age 12 and older.

  • Ages 12 through 17. The FDA has approved the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, now called Comirnaty, for folks age 12 through 17. This vaccine involves three shots. The initial two receive three to eight weeks apart. The 3rd shot, a booster, is given at the very least two months following the second shot. It includes the same level of mRNA because the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for folks age 16 and older. Research shows that vaccine is 100% effective in preventing COVID-19 in children ages 12 through 15.

    This vaccine is 91% effective in preventing severe illness with COVID-19 in people age 16 and older.

    The FDA in addition has given emergency use authorization to a Moderna COVID-19 vaccine for children ages 12 through 17. This vaccine requires two shots, given four to eight weeks apart. It includes the same level of mRNA because the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine for folks age 18 and older. For kids ages 12 through 17, the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine causes an immune response much like that observed in adults.

    The FDA in addition has given emergency use authorization to a Novavax COVID-19 vaccine for folks age 12 and older. This vaccine requires two shots, given three to eight weeks apart. Predicated on research submitted to the FDA, in children age 12 through 17, this vaccine is approximately 78% effective in preventing symptomatic COVID-19 illness.

An eight-week interval between your first and second doses may be best for a lot of, especially males ages 12 to 39. An extended interval might increase protection against COVID-19 and decrease the threat of rare heart disease, such as for example myocarditis and pericarditis.

Yet another primary shot of a COVID-19 vaccine might help those who are vaccinated and may not need had a solid enough immune response. The CDC now recommends that children age six months to 5 years who’ve a weakened disease fighting capability reach additional dose of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine at the very least a month after their second shot. Children ages 5 and older who’ve moderately or severely weakened immune systems should get additional doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine or the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. This shot ought to be given at the very least four weeks following the second shot for kids ages 5 through 11 for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. For kids ages 12 and older the excess shot ought to be given at the very least four weeks following the second shot for the Pfizer BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and Moderna COVID-19 vaccine.

Booster doses might help those who are vaccinated and whose immune response weakened as time passes. Research shows that obtaining a booster dose can reduce the threat of infection and severe illness with COVID-19.

Kids ages 5 through 17 should get yourself a Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine booster shot should they have already been given both doses of a Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and its own been at the very least 2 months (age 12 to 17) or 5 months (age 5 to 11) because the second shot.

Kids ages 5 through 11 who’ve a weakened disease fighting capability should get yourself a Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine booster shot should they have already been given all recommended doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and its own been at the very least three months because the additional primary shot.

Kids age 12 and older who’ve a weakened disease fighting capability, got all recommended doses of the Moderna, Pfizer-BioNTech or Novavax COVID-19 vaccine, can also get an updated booster dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. The updated booster could be given at the very least two months following the last shot.

How did the FDA determine the safety and effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccines for used in kids?

For kids ages 5 through 11, the FDA reviewed a vaccine study greater than 4,600 children in this a long time. Of the group, about 3,100 received the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Another children received an inactive (placebo) shot. Children who have been given the vaccine were monitored for unwanted effects for at the very least 2 months following the second dose. Unwanted effects were generally mild to moderate.

The FDA also took an early on look at cases of COVID-19 that occurred seven days after children received another dose of the vaccine. None of the kids in this analysis have been previously identified as having COVID-19. Among 1,305 children given the vaccine, there have been 3 cases of COVID-19. Among 663 children given the placebo, there have been 16 cases of COVID-19. The outcomes claim that the vaccine is approximately 91% effective in preventing COVID-19 in this generation.

For kids ages 12 through 15, the FDA reviewed a vaccine study greater than 2,200 U.S. children in this a long time. Of the group, about 50 % received the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Another children received a placebo shot.

Weekly following the second dose was presented with, there have been no cases of COVID-19 in the 1,005 children given the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. Among 978 children given the placebo, there have been 16 cases of COVID-19. None of the kids had previously been identified as having COVID-19. The outcomes claim that the vaccine is 100% able to preventing COVID-19 in this generation.

To look for the effectiveness of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine for kids ages six months through 4 and the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine for kids ages six months through 17 yrs . old, the FDA viewed the immune responses of children in these age ranges once they were fully vaccinated. The FDA compared those responses to the immune responses of adults whod been given higher doses of exactly the same mRNA vaccine.

Much like another vaccines, unwanted effects were recorded and some of the kids were monitored for safety for at the very least 8 weeks after being fully vaccinated.

To look for the effectiveness of the Novavax COVID-19 vaccine, the FDA reviewed data on 2,232 people age 12 to 17. The study shows that the vaccine was about 78% able to preventing COVID-19 disease in this generation.

Do you know the unwanted effects of the COVID-19 vaccines for kids?

Children given COVID-19 vaccines had unwanted effects much like those experienced by adults. Probably the most commonly reported unwanted effects include:

  • Pain, redness or swelling where in fact the shot was presented with
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Chills
  • Muscle pain
  • Fever
  • Pain
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Feeling unwell

Babies ages six months through three years old also might cry, feel sleepy or lose their appetite after vaccination.

Much like adults, children have unwanted effects within 2 days after vaccination that typically last 1 to 3 days. More children reported these unwanted effects, aside from injection site pain, following the second dose of the vaccine. However, some individuals have no unwanted effects.

After your son or daughter is given a COVID-19 vaccine, she or he will undoubtedly be monitored for 15 to 30 minutes to see if she or he has an allergic attack that will require treatment.

It is not recommended that you give your son or daughter an over-the-counter pain reliever before vaccination to avoid unwanted effects. It’s OK to provide this type of medication after your son or daughter gets a COVID-19 vaccine.

Can COVID-19 vaccines affect the center?

In the U.S., there’s been a rise in reported cases of myocarditis and pericarditis after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination, particularly in males ages 12 to 29. Myocarditis may be the inflammation of the center muscle, while pericarditis may be the inflammation of the liner beyond your heart. These reports are rare.

Of the cases reported, the issue happened more regularly following the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine and typically within seven days of COVID-19 vaccination. A lot of people who got care quickly felt better after receiving medicine and resting. Symptoms to view for include:

  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Feelings of experiencing a fast-beating, fluttering or pounding heart

If your son or daughter has these symptoms inside a week to getting a COVID-19 vaccine, seek health care.

If your son or daughter develops myocarditis or pericarditis following a dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, the CDC recommends avoiding getting another dose of any COVID-19 vaccine.

Will there be any research on the long-term ramifications of the COVID-19 vaccines?

Because COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials only were only available in the summertime of 2020, it isn’t yet clear if the vaccines could have long-term effects. However, vaccines rarely cause long-term effects.

Some of the kids in each generation were monitored for safety for at the very least 8 weeks after being fully vaccinated.

Furthermore, in the U.S. all vaccination providers must report serious adverse events, such as for example allergies, to a national program called the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System.

Just how do the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines work?

The Pfizer-BioNTech and the Moderna COVID-19 vaccines use messenger RNA (mRNA). Researchers have already been studying mRNA vaccines for many years.

Coronaviruses have a spikelike structure on the surface named an S protein. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines give cells instructions for steps to make a harmless little bit of an S protein. After vaccination, muscle cells begin making the S protein pieces and displaying them on cell surfaces. The disease fighting capability recognizes the protein and begins building an immune response and making antibodies. After delivering instructions, the mRNA is immediately divided. It never enters the nucleus of the cell, where DNA is kept.

Will there be any difference in the COVID-19 vaccines for children and adults?

Yes. The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for children ages six months to 4 yrs . old and the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine for children ages six months through 5 years contain small amounts of mRNA than their COVID-19 vaccines for teenagers and adults.

The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for children ages 5 through 11 and the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine for children ages 6 through 11 also contain small amounts of mRNA than their COVID-19 vaccines for folks age 12 and older.

Smaller needles may also be used to provide the vaccine to younger children.

Any kind of children who shouldn’t get yourself a COVID-19 vaccine?

COVID-19 vaccines must not be given to a kid with a known history of a severe allergic attack to some of its ingredients. If this is actually the case, your son or daughter could probably get another COVID-19 vaccine later on.

Can a COVID-19 vaccine provide a child COVID-19?

No. The COVID-19 vaccines becoming developed in the U.S. avoid the live virus that triggers COVID-19.

Can a COVID-19 vaccine affect fertility or menstruation?

There is absolutely no evidence that any vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines, cause fertility problems in women or men.

It isn’t clear if getting COVID-19 or perhaps a COVID-19 vaccine causes changes in menstruation. A fresh study around 4,000 people shows that obtaining a COVID-19 vaccine is associated with a significantly less than one-day change in menstrual period length for every dose. Remember that a lot of things make a difference menstrual cycles, including infections, stress, sleep issues, and changes in diet or exercise.

Can children who get COVID-19 experience long-term effects?

Whoever has had COVID-19 can form a post-COVID-19 condition. Research shows that children with both mild and severe COVID-19 have observed long-term symptoms. The most typical symptoms in children include:

  • Tiredness or fatigue
  • Headache
  • Sleep problems
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Muscle and pain
  • Cough

These symptoms could affect your son or daughter’s capability to attend school or do his / her usual activities. If your son or daughter is experiencing long-term symptoms, consider speaking with your son or daughter’s teachers about their needs.

How do children get yourself a COVID-19 vaccine?

Check with your local health department, pharmacy or your son or daughter’s doctor for info on where your son or daughter will get a COVID-19 vaccine. When coming up with an appointment for the child to obtain a COVID-19 vaccine.

How soon can a kid get yourself a COVID-19 vaccine before or after getting another vaccine?

A COVID-19 vaccine along with other vaccines could be given on a single day.

Remember, COVID-19 vaccination will protect a lot of people from getting sick with COVID-19. For those who have questions or concerns about your son or daughter obtaining a COVID-19 vaccine, speak to your child’s doctor. She or he could probably assist you to weigh the risks and benefits.

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Sept. 10, 2022

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