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Keeping balance outside and inside the tiny intestine

Keeping balance between inside and outside
In the standard intestine, IECs control gut bacteria by releasing anti-microbial factors in reaction to IL-17. Because upsurge in SFB results in up-regulation of IL-17 by promoting Th17 cell generation, the amounts of SFB and Th17 cells are maintained constant. On the other hand, insufficient IB in IECs results in expansion of both SFB and Th17 cells, that may cause the development of autoimmune diseases. Credit: Soh Yamazaki

In the standard small intestine, the degrees of SFB and Th17 cells are both maintained because they counterbalance one another. Th17 cells release IL-17 to limit unwanted expansion of SFB, whereas a reduction in the amount of SFB eases the restrictive action of Th17 cells. The study group discovered that this elaborate control system owes to the current presence of healthy IECs.

IECs that lack IB gene neglect to exert anti-bacterial effects in reaction to IL-17 despite the fact that the cytokine is plentifully made by increased Th17 cells. They demonstrated that insufficient IB in IECs results in impairment in both IL-17-mediated defense machineries in the gut: the production of IgA and the maintenance of Paneth cell integrity.

“Gut are aligned as an individual layer. This thin layer is effective for nutrient absorption, but susceptible to invasion. It needs a solid defense mechanism against invasive pathogens. Besides, these cells need to control the growth of microbes in a flexible manner as needed,” said the lead writer of the paper, Soh Yamazaki, Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Toho University School of Medicine.

“Hopefully our study will result in the development of a novel technique to treat by manipulating the event of IB,” said the final author Hiroyasu Nakano, M.D., Ph.D. Professor of the Toho University School of Medicine.

The finding was published in the journal Mucosal Immunology.



More info: Soh Yamazaki et al, IB controls IL-17-triggered gene expression program in intestinal epithelial cells that restricts colonization of SFB and prevents Th17-associated pathologies, Mucosal Immunology (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41385-022-00554-3

Provided byToho University

Citation: Keeping balance outside and inside the tiny intestine (2022, August 26) retrieved 28 August 2022 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-08-small-intestine.html

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