A research group in the Netherlands has analyzed different manufacturing techniques for two-dimensional Ruddlesden–Popper perovskite solar cells. These cells offer improved photostability and environmental stability compared with their three-dimensional counterparts.
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“Ruddlesden–Popper perovskite have often a better stability against humidity, which would save on costs for the encapsulation,” the research’s corresponding author, Rene Janssen, told pv magazine. “One of the first applications will likely be as top-layer of conventional perovskite solar cells.”
The scientists said their review is focused on two-dimensional RPPs possessing a monovalent organic space and is aimed at providing a toolbox to achieve high-efficiency solar cells. They also noted that RPPs are mostly used in p-i-n solar cells with inverted configurations, which are more suitable for multijunction applications, and offer improved photostability and environmental stability compared with their three-dimensional (3D) counterparts. “The introduction of new fabrication methods, the use of new additives and spacers, and a more thorough understanding of crystallization mechanism, vertical orientation, and phase purity are behind a substantial increase of power conversion efficiencies in RPPs,” they also stated.
Through their review, the Dutch group analyzed different molecular and additive engineering techniques, as well as all manufacturing methods related to RPP solar cells. “Additive engineering is clearly an effective tool to achieve higher efficiencies, even though the mechanism behind the enhancement in efficiency is often not studied or explained,” it stressed, noting that these devices recently reached efficiencies over 20%. “Apart from additive engineering, tuning the interlayer interaction and the dielectric confinement has also proved to be an effective way to increase the efficiency of RPPs.”
According to Jannsen, the study of precursor solutions will also be crucial in developing a reproducible method to form efficient, phase pure RPPs. “Ruddlesden–Popper perovskites have shown significant improvements in performance and stability. Pure Ruddlesden–Popper perovskites, however, are likely further away,” he also explained. “At present, I do not know of real commercial perovskite products of Ruddlesden–Popper perovskites although quite some companies are claiming these will be out soon.”
The research team presented its review in the study “High Efficiency Quasi-2D Ruddlesden–Popper Perovskite Solar Cells,” published in Advanced Energy Materials. “With this work, we show that there is plenty of potential and room for further improvements of this fascinating class of materials,” it concluded.
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