Angola’s President Joao Manuel Goncalves Lourenco (L) speaks to Russian President Vladimir Putin throughout their meeting at the Kremlin in Moscow on April 4, 2019. Lourenco’s MPLA has long maintained close ties with Russia.
ALEXANDER ZEMLIANICHENKO/POOL/AFP via Getty Images
Russia’s long-held ties with the Southern African nation of Angola could possibly be in jeopardy because the Moscow-friendly government faces its toughest electoral test in decades.
The ruling leftist MPLA (People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola) has been around power for pretty much five decades since securing the oil-rich nation’s independence from Portugal in 1975.
On Wednesday, however, the party faces what analysts believe to be its tightest election yet, as opposition parties principally one-time rebel movement UNITA (National Union for the full total Independence of Angola) capitalize on widespread discontent fueled by high degrees of poverty and unemployment.
This season may be the 20th anniversary of the finish of the Angolan civil war, which raged for 27 years until original UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi was killed doing his thing.
However, the country’s control over its vast reserves of oil and minerals have not brought the widespread prosperity that lots of of its population had envisioned in both decades of peace that followed, and several in rural areas have felt increasingly left out.
The ripples of Cold War history and proxy politics are deeply entrenched in Angola, among the largest economies in sub-Saharan Africa and its own second-largest oil producer.
“UNITA was the next largest recipient of U.S. covert aid through the Cold War, following the Afghan Mujahideen. That ended in 1993, but UNITA maintained its pro Western stance,” said Alex Vines, head of the Africa Programme at Chatham House.
Meanwhile, the MPLA was a Cold War proxy for Moscow and contains maintained close ties with the Kremlin throughout its tenure.
Under current President Joao Lourenco, who succeeded 38-year predecessor Jose Eduardo dos Santos in 2017, the MPLA has diversified its foreign affairs and opened the united states around the West.
LUANDA, Angola – August 20, 2022: Joao Lourenco, Angola’s President and presidential candidate of the the favorite Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) delivers a speech throughout a campaign rally. The MPLA faces its sternest electoral test for nearly 50 years.
JULIO PACHECO NTELA/AFP via Getty Images
Vines noted that while Russia is essential for defense and diamond mining with mining group Alrosa maintaining a solid presence in Angola China’s influence is a lot deeper. Following a invasion of Ukraine, the federal government in addition has deepened commitments with Western energy giants, specifically Italy’s Eni and France’s TotalEnergies.
Angola is defined to open negotiations with the EU over a trade deal later this season, Reuters reported earlier this month. This type of deal will be likely to help Angola expand its export base further beyond oil, and aid the EU’s efforts to diversify its fuel supply in light of the war in Ukraine.
Lourenco in addition has overseen a noticable difference of bilateral relations with the U.S., and contains a house in Maryland.
Yet Lourenco’s government abstained from the U.N. resolution condemning Russia’s invasion of Ukraine earlier this season, while UNITA was vocal in its opposition to Moscow.
UNITA leader Adalberto Costa Junior has traveled to Washington and Brussels lately to determine ties with Western powers before Wednesday’s election.
MPLA win likely, but tides turning
The MPLA went into Wednesday’s vote ahead in the polls, but lots of the country’s huge under-25 population are voting for the very first time and also have increasingly been attracted to the platform of UNITA and its own coalition allies recently, driven by anger at too little economic opportunity.
“The MPLA is quite more likely to prevail, however the key question is if they lose their absolute majority. That is key as under Angolan law, as laws could be challenged by the opposition if almost all is under 60 percent,” Vines told CNBC via email from Mozambique on Wednesday.
Eric Humphery-Smith, senior Africa analyst at an increased risk consultancy Verisk Maplecroft, agreed that the MPLA is odds-on to pip Costa Junior’s UNITA and the opposition coalition, but suggested this might only function as beginning of a larger upheaval in Angola.
LUANDA, Angola – May 21, 2022: Adalberto Costa Jnior, leader of the Angolan opposition party UNITA (The National Union for the full total Independence of Angola) addresses supporters throughout a political rally. Costa has openly criticized Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and sought ties with Western leaders.
JULIO PACHECO NTELA/AFP via Getty Images
“Much like other national liberation movements that stay in power in southern Africa, their decline will continue steadily to happen gradually, then suddenly,” Humphery-Smith said.
UNITA has drawn together a variety of opposition movements dubbed the FPU (United Patriotic Front) together under Costa’s leadership, and attracted a groundswell of increasingly diverse support.
“Attempts by the MPLA to divide and conquer the opposition have largely failed, and the dream team assembled by Adalberto Costa Jnior is actually a force to be reckoned with,” said Humphery-Smith.
“The FPU platform has lumped together politicians with proven pedigree that may rally the many voters necessary to contend with the MPLA.”