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SARS-CoV-2 antigen levels associated with patient outcomes

SARS-CoV-2
Transmission electron micrograph of SARS-CoV-2 virus particles (colored yellow) within the endosomes of a heavily infected nasal olfactory epithelial cell. Credit: NIAID

The quantity of SARS-CoV-2 antigen measured in the blood of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is connected with illness severity along with other clinical outcomes, in accordance with a fresh study published in the Annals of Internal Medicine. Following ACTIV-3 trial of COVID-19 therapeutics in people hospitalized with COVID-19, researchers from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), section of the National Institutes of Health, and their collaborators analyzed degrees of SARS-COV-2 antigen in blood samples extracted from study participants and assessed the association of these levels with disease progression. Higher degrees of viral antigen in the blood, that could indicate ongoing SARS-CoV-2 replication, correlated with an increase of severe disease. The authors claim that SARS-CoV-2 antigen levels hold promise as a biomarker, or perhaps a measurable substance, to predict which patients hospitalized with COVID-19 have an increased threat of worse outcomes.

The ACTIV-3 trial enrolled people hospitalized with COVID-19 between August 2020 and November 2021. Participants contributed set up a baseline and were then randomized to get either an experimental COVID-19 therapeutic or perhaps a placebo. All participants received the antiviral remdesivir unless contraindicated. In this follow-up analysis, the researchers examined 2540 participant baseline for SARS-CoV-2 antigen levels.

The researchers assessed the partnership between each participant’s SARS-CoV-2 blood antigen levels and their time and energy to discharge from a healthcare facility, in addition to their pulmonary symptoms at Day 5 of the trialwhether that they had stayed exactly the same, worsened, or improved since enrollment. With all of this information at hand, the researchers conducted statistical analyses to find out if plasma antigen levels were linked to the participants’ pulmonary function if they gave the blood sampleand if they could predict the way the participants would fare as time passes. Furthermore, the researchers examined the partnership between numerous participant and viral characteristics and antigen levels.

The analysis revealed a solid correlation between higher SARS-CoV-2 antigen levels (1000 nanograms per liter) and worse pulmonary function during enrollment. Importantly, participants with higher SARS-CoV-2 antigen levels in the blood at enrollment generally had decreased pulmonary function at Day 5, whatever the severity of these illness during study entry, and took longer to be released from a healthcare facility. High blood antigen levels also correlated with some known risk factors for worse illness, such as for example being male. Three additional participant characteristics were found to correlate with lower antigen levels: the current presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, contact with remdesivir ahead of enrollment and longer amount of time in hospital ahead of enrollment. Finally, participants infected with the delta variant had higher antigen levels than those infected with prior circulating strains. The researchers figured antigen levels in the tend a marker of ongoing viral replication and may be ideal for predicting a patient’s and likely outcomes after they are admitted to a healthcare facility. The authors remember that these results claim that a precision medicine approach could possibly be helpful in future clinical trials of antiviral therapy. For example, antigen levels may help determine those patients probably to reap the benefits of therapies fond of fighting the herpes virus.



More info: The association of baseline plasma SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen level and outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, Annals of Internal Medicine (2022). DOI: 10.7326/M22-0924

Citation: SARS-CoV-2 antigen levels associated with patient outcomes (2022, August 29) retrieved 29 August 2022 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-08-sars-cov-antigen-linked-patient-outcomes.html

This document is at the mercy of copyright. Aside from any fair dealing for the intended purpose of private study or research, no part could be reproduced minus the written permission. This content is provided for information purposes only.

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