A fresh large study led by researchers at the American Cancer Society (ACS) shows older age and smoking will be the two most significant risk factors of a relative and absolute five-year threat of developing any cancer. The findings also demonstrate that along with age and smoking history, clinicians should think about excess surplus fat, genealogy of any cancer, and many other factors that might help patients determine should they may reap the benefits of enhanced cancer screening or prevention interventions. The info was published today in the journal Cancer.
“Single cancer type-specific screening recommendations derive from risk factors for that specific kind of cancer,” said Dr. Alpa Patel, senior vice president, population science at the American Cancer Society and lead writer of the analysis. “Our findings are encouraging once we will work to define subgroups in the general population who could reap the benefits of enhanced cancer screening and prevention.”
Because of this study, researchers analyzed two ACS prospective cohort studies, Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort and Cancer Prevention Study-3 to recognize the chance factors connected with higher than two-percent absolute threat of any cancer within five years. The authors studied 429,991 participants in the usa without prior personal history of cancer and followed for cancer for five years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for association. Using these HRs, individualized Coherent Absolute Risk Estimation was used to calculate absolute risks by age.
The outcomes showed 15,226 invasive cancers were diagnosed among participants within five-years of enrollment. The multivariable-adjusted relative threat of any cancer was strongest for current smokers weighed against never smokers. In men, alcohol intake, genealogy of cancer, red meat consumption, and physical inactivity were also connected with risk. In women, body mass index (BMI), type 2 diabetes, hysterectomy, parity, genealogy of cancer, hypertension, tubal ligation, and physical inactivity were connected with cancer risk. Absolute five-year risk exceeded two-percent among almost all persons higher than 50 yrs . old and among some persons significantly less than 50 yrs . old including current or former smokers (significantly less than 30 years since quitting) and long-term nonsmokers with a BMI higher than 25 or perhaps a first-degree genealogy of cancer. The absolute five-year risk was as high as 29% in men and 25% in women.
“Once we think about the possibility that future tests might be able to identify various kinds cancer, we have to begin understanding who’s most at an increased risk for developing any kind of cancer,” said Patel. “These kinds of data aren’t accessible, but essential to inform future screening options, such as for example blood-based multi-cancer early detection tests which could assist in saving lives.”
More info: Alpa V. Patel et al, Key risk factors for the relative and absolute 5year threat of cancer to improve cancer screening and prevention, Cancer (2022). DOI: 10.1002/cncr.34396
Citation: Study shows older age and smoking most significant risk factors for developing any cancer (2022, August 3) retrieved 3 August 2022 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-08-older-age-important-factors-cancer.html
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