Diet alters microbiome
A Western-style high-fat, high-sugar diet can result in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes, but the way the diet kickstarts unhealthy changes in the torso is unknown.
The gut microbiome is indispensable for an animal’s nutrition, so Ivalyo Ivanov, Ph.D., associate professor of microbiology & immunology at Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, and his colleagues investigated the original ramifications of the Western-style diet on the microbiome of mice.
After a month on the dietary plan, the animals showed characteristics of metabolic syndrome, such as for example weight gain, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. And their microbiomes had changed dramatically, with the quantity of segmented filamentous bacteriacommon in the gut microbiota of rodents, fish, and chickensfalling sharply along with other bacteria increasing by the bucket load.
Microbiome changes alter Th17 cells
The decrease in filamentous bacteria, the researchers found, was critical to the animals’ health through its influence on Th17 immune cells. The drop in filamentous bacteria reduced the amount of Th17 cells in the gut, and additional experiments revealed that it is the Th17 cells which are essential to prevent metabolic disease, diabetes, and weight gain.
“These immune cells produce molecules that decelerate the absorption of ‘bad’ lipids from the intestines plus they decrease intestinal inflammation,” Ivanov says. “Quite simply, they keep carefully the gut healthy and protect your body from absorbing pathogenic lipids.”
Sugar vs. fat
What element of the high-fat, high-sugar diet resulted in these changes? Ivanov’s team discovered that sugar was at fault.
“Sugar eliminates the filamentous bacteria, and the protective Th17 cells disappear as a result,” says Ivanov. “Whenever we fed mice a sugar-free, high-fat diet, they wthhold the intestinal Th17 cells and were completely protected from developing obesity and pre-diabetes, despite the fact that they ate exactly the same amount of calories.”
But eliminating sugar didn’t help all mice. The type of lacking any filamentous bacteria in the first place, elimination of sugar didn’t have a brilliant effect, and the animals became obese and developed diabetes.
“This shows that some popular dietary interventions, such as for example minimizing sugars, may only work in individuals who have certain bacterial populations of their microbiota,” Ivanov says.
In those cases, certain probiotics may be helpful. In Ivanov’s mice, supplements of filamentous bacteria resulted in the recovery of Th17 cells and protection against metabolic syndrome, regardless of the animals’ usage of a high-fat diet.
Though people don’t have exactly the same filamentous bacteria as mice, Ivanov thinks that other bacteria in people could have exactly the same protective effects.
Providing Th17 cells to the mice also provided protection and could also be therapeutic for folks. “Microbiota are essential, however the real protection originates from the Th17 cells induced by the bacteria,” Ivanov says.
“Our study emphasizes a complex interaction between diet, microbiota, and the disease fighting capability plays an integral role in the development of obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, along with other conditions,” Ivanov says. “It shows that for optimal wellbeing it is necessary not only to change your diet but additionally enhance your microbiome or intestinal disease fighting capability, for instance, by increasing Th17 cell-inducing bacteria.”
More info: Yoshinaga Kawano et al, Microbiota imbalance induced by dietary sugar disrupts immune-mediated protection from metabolic syndrome, Cell (2022). DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2022.08.005
Journal information: Cell
Citation: Sugar disrupts microbiome, eliminates protection against obesity and diabetes (2022, August 29) retrieved 29 August 2022 from https://phys.org/news/2022-08-sugar-disrupts-microbiome-obesity-diabetes.html
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