From prior to the rise of Athens to the height of the Roman Empire, probably the most sought-after products in the Mediterranean world was a golden-flowered plant called silphion. For ancient greek language physicians, silphion was a cure-all, prized for from stomach pain to wart removal. For Roman chefs, it had been a culinary staple, crucial for spicing up a day to day pot of lentils or finishing an extravagant dish of scalded flamingo. Through the reign of Julius Caesar, greater than a thousand pounds of the plant was stockpiled alongside gold in Romes imperial treasuries, and silphion saplings were valued at exactly the same price as silver.
But just seven centuries following the adored plant was initially documented growing across the coast of Cyrenaica, in what’s now modern Libya (in accordance with one chronicler, it had been in 638 B.C. following a black rain fell) silphion disappeared from the ancient Mediterranean world.
Just one single stalk has been found, Roman chronicler Pliny the Elder lamented in his Natural History in the initial century A.D., and contains been directed at the Emperor Nero.
Because the DARK AGES, botanical explorers inspired by ancient accounts of the remarkable plant have sought it on three continents, and always in vain. Many historians view the disappearance of silphion because the first recorded extinction of any species, plant or animal, and a cautionary tale in how thoroughly human appetite can erase a species from the wild.
But is silphion truly extinct? Because of a lucky encounter almost 40 years back, and decades of subsequent research, a professor at Istanbul University suspects he’s got re-discovered the final holdouts of the ancient plant greater than a thousand years after it disappeared from history books, and nearly one thousand miles from where it once grew.
A chemical gold mine
On a sunny morning in October of this past year, Mahmut Miski stood in the boulder-strewn foothills of a dynamic volcano in the Cappadocia region of central Turkey, sweeping an arm towards a thicket of grooved, buff-colored stalks shaded by wild pistachio trees. Welcome to ‘silphion land,’ the 68-year-old professor said, as he stooped to pull a stalk and its own gnarled root from the rocky soil. The main ballthe chemical factory of the plantperfumed the air with a nice, slightly medicinal odor, halfway between eucalyptus and pine sap. If you ask me, the smell is stimulating, and also relaxing, Miski explained. You can view why everybody who encounters this plant becomes mounted on it.
Miski, whose field at Istanbul University is pharmacognosy, the analysis of medicines produced from natural sources, had first seen the present day plant he now believes to function as silphion of the ancients while doing postdoctoral research 38 years earlier. Hed received a grant to get specimens of Ferula, a genus of flowering plants in a family group (Apiaceae) which includes carrots, fennel, and parsley, and contains a reputation for yielding many novel disease-fighting compounds. Turkey houses 1 / 2 of the worlds 200 roughly known Ferula species.
On a spring day in 1983, two boys from the small Cappadocian village led Miski along a precipitous dirt road to the slopes of Mount Hasan, where their family eked out a full time income growing barley and chickpeas. Behind fieldstone walls that protected the plants from grazing livestock, the brothers showed Miski several unusually tall Ferula plants with thick stems that oozed an acrid-tasting resin. The professors research eventually revealed that only 1 other specimen of the plant had ever been collectedback in 1909 at a niche site 150 miles to the east of Mount Hasanand was subsequently defined as a fresh species: Ferula drudeana.
Miskis hunch that Ferula drudeana would end up being a chemical gold mine ended up being correct: Analyses of the main extract identified 30 secondary metabolitessubstances which, while they dont donate to the principal business of helping a plant grow or reproduce, nonetheless confer some type of selective advantage. On the list of compounds, a lot of that have cancer-fighting, contraceptive, and anti-inflammatory properties, is shyobunone, which acts on the brains benzodiazepine receptors and could donate to the plants intoxicating smell. Miski believes that future analyses of the plant will reveal the existence of a large number of yet-to-be-identified compounds of medical interest.
You discover exactly the same chemicals in rosemary, sweet flag, artichoke, sage, and galbanum, another Ferula plant, the professor marvels. Its as if you combined six important medicinal plants within a species.
Ferula drudeana clearly held medical potential, nonetheless it was only on a return stop by at Mount Hasan in 2012 that Miski started to ponder its similarities with the silphion plant hed find out about in old botanical texts. The young caretakers of theFerulaplants had told the professor how sheep and goats loved to graze on its leaves, which reminded him of a description in Plinys Natural History of sheep being fattened on silphion. Miski also observed that after being attracted to the pearl-colored sap, flying insects started to mate, which made him think about legends that celebrated the ancient plants aphrodisiac qualities.
In a 2021 paper published in the journal Plants,Miski descibed the similarities between silphion, described in ancient texts and depicted on Cyrenaican coins to celebrate the regions most well-known export, and Ferula drudeana: thick, branching roots, much like ginseng; frond-like basal leaves; a grooved stalk rising towards extravagant circular clusters of flowers; celery-like leaves; and papery fruits, or mericarps, in the form of inverted hearts.
Similarity to look at wasnt the only real compelling link. The initial silphion was thought to have appeared suddenly, following a great downpour. Miski observed that, when rains found Cappadocia in April, Ferula drudeanawould spring from the bottom, growing around six feet in only over per month.
Because ancient silphion resisted cultivation, it needed to be harvested in the open, an activity that Cyrenaic nobles entrusted to desert nomads; two attempts (reported by Hippocrates) to transplant it to mainland Greece failed. Miski also found Ferula drudeana difficult to transplant; it had been only through the use of cold stratification, a method where seeds are tricked into germinating by exposing them to wet, winter-like conditions, that his team could propagate the plant in a greenhouse.
Because the early 19th century, three contemporary species have already been help with as potential candidates to be the long-lost silphion. The stalk and fruits of Ferula tingitana, referred to as giant fennel, resemble the plant depicted on Cyrenaic coins, and its own resin can be used as a folk medicine in Morocco, however the plants high ammonia content helps it be virtually inedible. Cachrys ferulacea has heart-shaped fruits and produces an agreeably scented resin, but its leaves dont match the ancient descriptions; additionally it is a standard plant in Italy and Greece, places the ancient sources clarified silphion didnt grow. Margotia gummifera comes tantalizingly near to the images depicted on coins, however the plants rangewhich includes northwest Africa and the Iberian Peninsuladoesnt match, its stalk is too thin, and many studies have concluded it has little value as a medicinal plant.
Morphologically, Ferula drudeana appears to be probably the most likely candidate, says Shahina Ghazanfar, a study associate who focuses on the taxonomy of Middle Eastern plants at the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London. The striated stems, fruits, and perhaps the main all appear to point to the theory that Ferula species may be a remnant cultivated plant in Anatolia that has been referred to as silphion. Ghazanfar singles out the distinctive way the leaves are arrayed on opposing sides of the stem. The contrary leaves, which arent within another species, are particularly convincing.
A far-flung survivor?
While Ferula drudeana fits ancient descriptions of the silphion plant more closely than any species yet proposed, there exists a problem: Ancient descriptions were unanimous that the very best silphion came exclusively from the narrow zone round the city of Cyrene, a niche site now occupied by the present day settlement of Shahat in Libya. The foothills of Mount Hasan are 800 miles northeast, because the crow flies, over the Mediterranean. When Miski presents his research at conferences, he emphasizes the truth that the plant has been recorded in two locations in Turkey, both which had historic Greek populations stretching back again to antiquity.
Last October, Mehmet Ata, who as a boy led Miski to the orchard where in fact the plant grew, directed us to a nearby village and showed us his childhood home, now abandoned, which contains a warren of dark rooms carved straight into volcanic rock. Ata, now a grandfather, explained that his family had taken possession of the house sometime following the 1923 expulsion of Greeks from the spot; before then, the village have been inhabited by Cappadocian Greeks who had inhabited villages in central Anatolia from enough time of Alexander the fantastic, and Miski speculates that 2,000 roughly years back, a Greek trader or farmer tried planting silphion seeds that were delivered to him from North Africa.
Since it takes at the very least a decade to mature, they could have planted it, then forgotten about it. However the plant continued growing in the open, and finished up populating this small area, he offers. The descendants of the initial farmers wouldnt have known what on earth it had been.
Erica Rowan, a co-employee professor in archaeobotany at Royal Holloway University of London, finds Miskis speculations plausible. The ancients were excellent at transporting things, Rowan highlights. Theres no reason folks from Cyrenaica couldnt have brought the seeds to Cappadocia and planted them. Theyre similar enough, with a Mediterranean climate. Which Ferula species does appear to be whats shown on the coins.
Alain Touwaide, a historian who focuses on medical plants of antiquity, is more skeptical, and questions the reasoning that “that is something Greek, because there have been once Greeks there. Touwaide argues that Miskis team would create a stronger argument by isolating compounds in Ferula drudeana that play an identical medical role to those that silphion was prescribed.
The thing is that ancient authorities appeared to prescribe the plant for almost everything. Silphion was an end to baldness and dental pain, for pleurisy and epilepsy, and a balm, in accordance with one lyrical translation, for both dog-bitten and the scorpion-smitten.
Really the only solution to confirm whether theyre one and exactly the same is if we’d remains of the ancient plant to compare for analysis, say from the jar clearly labeled silphion thats excavated from an archaeological site, says Lisa Briggs, a post-doctoral researcher at the British Museum and National Geographic Explorer. A recently available paper she co-authored recommends the Libyan seaside town of Susa, the island of Malta, and the Greek port of Piraeus nearly as good sites for archaeologists to consider the remains of shipwrecks that could have sunk while transporting silphion.
The culinary ULTIMATE GOAL
In the lack of a well-labelled jar of silphion being hauled from the deep, most industry experts agree that there surely is one promisingthough not surefireway of supporting the theory that Ferula drudeana corresponds to the silphion of the ancients: somebody would need to eat it. Its medical properties were vital that you the ancients, but silphions defining characteristic was that it had been a seasoning, says Rowan.
Unlike classical medical texts, which are usually vague on details, the cookbooks that survive from antiquity tend to be explicit about quantities and techniques. Probably the most famous, a handbook of 475 recipes that took its final form in the fourth century A.D., is called Apicius, following a celebrated gourmet who lived beneath the reign of Roman emperor Tiberius (r. A.D. 14-37). A large number of recipes in the compilation demand silphion, in another of three forms: pure gum resin, known as laser vivum; resin blended with flour (laserpicium); or the dry root (laseris radix), that is generally cut into pieces and crushed in a mortar and pestle with other seasonings.
For Sally Grainger, a researcher who co-edited the authoritative English translation of Apicius, locating the original silphion, and experiencing ancient recipes afresh with it, is really a kind of ULTIMATE GOAL.
Grainger, who worked as head pastry chef at Londons Atheneum Hotel for five years before earning a qualification in ancient history, demonstrates Roman cooking techniques on her behalf A Taste of the Ancient World YouTube channel. As yet, she recreated recipes calling for Libyan silphion utilizing a lower-quality substitute mentioned in Apicius: Parthian laser, that is thought to be asafoetida, a resin produced from another Ferula species that grows in Afghanistan and can be used in contemporary Indian cuisine beneath the name hing. Once the original silphion became difficult to find, Roman chefs started to substitute the cheaper and much more abundant asafoetida, and Apicius makes an obvious distinction between your high-class Libyan plant and its own more pungent, sulfurous eastern cousin.
On a sunny May morning in Istanbuls Nezahat Gkyiit Botanical Garden, Turkeys most significant repository of plant biodiversity, Grainger and Miski gathered at a makeshift outdoor kitchen to discover if Ferula drudeanamay indeed be culinary historys ULTIMATE GOAL.
The professor had just returned with plant samples from the foothills of Mount Hasan, where Ata have been monitoring the plants development. Snowmelt had abundantly irrigated the website, and the field was a riot of brilliant yellow flowersFerula plants completely bloom meant the roots will be at their most pharmacologically active. Grainger had traveled from the united kingdom with mortar and pestle, and also all of the spices and condiments had a need to recreate recipes from Apicius, including sweet wines, the fermented fish sauce garum, and herbs such as for example rue and lovage.
Now, as terracotta pots filled with lentils stewed over charcoal braziers, Miski presented the chef with a thick, ridged stalk of Ferula drudeana, pearl-colored sap oozing from the fresh cut. Grainger dropped a lump of hardened resin collected from the plant right into a pan of heated essential olive oil, step one to make laseratum, a straightforward silphion-based dressing. A unique scent filled the air.
Its intense and delightful, said Grainger. Once you smell it, your saliva flows.
As picnic tables begun to fill with plates from six Roman recipeseach with a version flavored with Ferula drudeanaand something flavored with silphions ancient replacement, asafoetidaa crowd like the botanical gardens directors and staff and Miskis students gathered around for samples. A plate of aliter lenticulum, lentils made out of honey, vinegar, coriander, leek, and Ferula drudeana, was deemed complex and delicious, as the same dish made out of pungent asafoetida resin provoked grimaces and was left largely untouched. Squash sauted with the plants grated root was also eaten with gusto, as was a delicate dish of prawn dumplings described in Apicius as isicia, dipped in the laseratum sauce. The largest success, though, was ius in ouifero fervens, a sauce for lamb made out of sweet wine and plums spiced having an ample dose of Ferula drudeana.
Its beautiful! said Grainger, as she rested in a lawn chair following a long day on her behalf feet. Despite the fact that the sauce is rich and dense, the flavor of the silphion isnt buried by the fruits and spices. It has this intense green flavor that truly brings about the qualities of another herbs in the sauce. A version made out of asafoetida was obnoxiously pungent. It had been obvious Grainger believed Ferula drudeana had great gastronomic merit and was an excellent candidate to be the long-lost plant of the Greeks and Romans.
Miski seemed happy with the outcomes of Graingers experiments, and surprised by the taste, though he confessed he was worried about what might happen next.
You can find only 600 individual plants we realize of in depends upon, he described. Three hundred of these grow in the open. The same number are now grown from seed in the botanical gardens, though it will require many years before some of them are mature enough to create fruiting bodies. Youd need to grow one thousand times as much plants to make a commercial supply.
Two thousand years following the original way to obtain silphion was take off, the legendary plant could have reemerged and then face a threat from its ancient nemesis: human appetite. For the moment, numbers are so low that Ferula drudeana officially qualifies as a critically endangered species.
Thats whats stressing me out, says Miski, an authentic note of alarm in his voice. If everyone starts making silphion sauce, wait! Weren’t going to have sufficient to bypass.
Taras Grescoemay be the writer of Straphanger and seven other non-fiction books. His next book, The Lost Supper: Why the continuing future of Food Is based on days gone by, will undoubtedly be published by Greystone in 2023.Follow him on
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Alice Zoois really a documentary photographer whose work explores ideas of ritual and meaning. She recently photographed a tale for National Geographic Magazine on Stonehenge and the Neolithic building boom. See more of her focus on her website and onInstagram.
The National Geographic Society, focused on illuminating and protecting the sweetness of the world, has funded Explorer Nirupa Raos are a botanical illustrator since 2016. See more of her focus on her website and on Instagram.