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Science And Nature

USDA must now publicly report all animal welfare violations

As ordered by Congress, the agency is finished a practice that allowed animal welfare inspectors to omit certain violations from public reports.

Published August 9, 2022

7 min read

The U.S. Department of Agriculture now will cite all welfare violations in its animal facility inspection reports, the agency announced.

At animal facilitiessuch as dog breeding centers and roadside zoosthe USDA conducts routine inspections to make sure compliance with the pet Welfare Act, which requires the humane treatment of animals useful for research or exhibition. Violators could be fined or charged with animal cruelty.

Going back six years, however, the USDA has allowed a so-called teachable moments policy, wherein minor violations, such as for example record-keeping problems or lapses in cleanliness, weren’t documented in facilities public inspection reports.

For a long time, animal welfare advocates have criticized this policy because of its insufficient transparency. It had been impossible to obtain a precise report of an authorized facilitys operations and their failures, says Matt Rossell, a campaign manager at the pet Legal Defense Fund. Teachable moments hindered the correct and lawful care of animals.

That policy is currently kaput. In the years ahead, the USDA will now cite all welfare violations in its inspection reports, in accordance with an announcement from the agencys Animal Care program Deputy Administrator Betty Goldentyer. The reports appear publicly onthe USDA website.

That is very good news for animals, Rossell says.

A spokesperson for the USDA declined to answer questions concerning the announcement, but Goldentyer said in a statement that the humane treatment of animals is definitely [our] priority, and we use all available choices to handle this goal.

Misleading omissions?

The USDA introduced its teachable moments policy in 2016, sayingin the announcement that it could allow inspectors and facilities to interact to market Animal Welfare Act compliance. We see teachable moments being an educational approach, the bulletin read.

From 2016 to 2020, teachable moments were only accessible via public record information requests, that have been often heavily redacted and took years to process. In 2020, as directed by Congress, the USDA began posting teachable moments separately online, however they were still not listed in inspection reports, meaning a facility may have numerous minor violations but nonetheless boast a clean inspection record.

In its2022 appropriations bill, Congress intervened, directing the USDA to add all noncompliances in its public inspection reports, at the urging of animal welfare advocates. The USDA complied, officially ending its teachable moments policy on August 1.

The violations that went unreported beneath the teachable moments policy were said to be minorthey cannot be so severe they were adversely impacting medical or well-being of an animal, based on the USDAsanimal care inspection guide.

However the USDA allowed some serious infractions to go unreported, animal advocates say. At a Michigan facility namedOswalds Bear Ranch, for instance, an employee was seen transporting bear cubs in a covered plastic bin in aMarch 18 video posted to its Instagram account. Per month later, inspectors issued ateachable moment for improper ventilation, despite the fact that the USDAsanimal care guidelines explicitly require inspectors to cite facilities for ventilation issues.

Thats just one single recent exemplory case of a laundry set of types of the USDA having didn’t follow its protocols, says Brittany Peet, the PETA Foundations deputy general counsel for captive animal police.

Though publicly the USDA maintained the objective of teachable moments was to encourage compliance, Peet believes the agency held apro-business attitude that catered to animal facilities. The teachable moments policy was systematically made to mislead the general public regarding the rates of Animal Welfare Act compliance, she says. We were all being lied to by the USDA.

She cited a 2015 industry meeting for dog breeders, whereUSDA officials announced the teachable moments policy as a reply to complaints from breeders about laws that restricted purchases from facilities with welfare violations. Similarly, in a March 2019 ending up in PETA, Peet says then Animal Care Deputy Administrator Bernadette Juarez acknowledged the objective of teachable moments was to shield regulated facilities from disparagement.

The USDA has historically described animal facilities as their “customers,” which ultimately shows a cozy relationship that’s really problematic, Rossell says. (Read more concerning the USDAs alleged tendency to overlook animal welfare violations and only business interests.)

The implementation of teachable moments correlates with a drop in the USDAs Animal Welfare Act enforcement, records show. Within 2 yrs of the policys introduction, welfare citations dropped 60 percent, in accordance with a2019 letter signed by 174 members of Congress. Between 2015 and 2020, enforcement actions brought against licensed animal facilitiesfell by 90 percent, in accordance with a PETA assessment.

This drop in citations doesn’t represent a big change in care, it represents a big change in reporting, Rossell says. Watchdog organizations like ourselves be determined by these inspection reports along with other public documents in order to know what’s happening to the animals of the facilities.

Maintaining discretion

The Association of Zoos and Aquariums, a nonprofit zoo accrediting body, supports increased transparency, but Dan Ashe, the organizations president and CEO, says he hopes this decision wont send the unintended message that discretion isnt appropriate. Inspectors have to have the latitude to create some judgments about whether certain violations really warrant a citation, Ashe says.

USDA inspectors, at some level, have to be trusted to produce a decision, as if you would hope an area officer would, Ashe says. EASILY have a taillight out, or I rolled by way of a stop sign, or something similar to that, most of us hope that police officers will use that occasion in an effort to sort of say, Okay, don’t repeat.

Regardless, in the years ahead, violations will undoubtedly be aquired online in animal welfare inspection reports, and facilities with even minor violations won’t have the ability to indicate clean inspection records as indicators of welfare.

After years of criticism, Peet says, its regrettable that Congress had to intervene to get rid of the USDA policy, rather than the agency making the change alone. Regardless, she sees this development as a win for animals.

One of many techniques the USDA was [evading] enforcement has been stripped out of its toolkit, she says.

The National Geographic Society supports Wildlife Watch, our investigative reporting project centered on wildlife crime and exploitation. Read more Wildlife Watch stories here, and send tips, feedback, and story suggestions to Find out about the National Geographic Societys nonprofit mission at

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