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Science And Nature

WHAT’S the Apple A16?

Apple A16 chip schematics

The iPhone 14 Pro saw the debut of a fresh Apple system-on-a-chip, the A16 Bionic. Just what exactly sort of improvements on the A15 does it bring, and where else can we be prepared to start to see the A16 implemented?

A16 Arrived With the iPhone 14 Pro

Apples flagship mobile chip for 2022 was the A16 Bionic, which powers the high-end iPhone 14 Pro and Pro Max models. The iPhone 14 instead runs on the slightly improved version of the A15 Bionic from 2021s iPhone 13 (having an additional GPU core). This may be due to a global semiconductor shortage and pressure on manufacturing processes because of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Its the 1st time Apple has ever used different generations of system-on-chip because of its numbered and Pro iPhone models. It might seem this means that that theres very little difference between them, but youd be wrong. At first glance, you can observe the chip comes with an identical amount of CPU and GPU cores (6 and 5, respectively) because the A15 Bionic found in the iPhone 14.

A16 Bionic system-on-chip under yellow light

But Apple claims that the A16 includes a faster CPU because of its nearly 16 billion transistors (up from 15 billion on the prior model), though Apple provides no statistics to back this up. Transistors are to microprocessors what neurons are to the mind, therefore the more of these available for you the higher.

Another area that is improved may be the memory bandwidth of the GPU. Despite having the same amount of GPU cores because the current A15, improved memory bandwidth will result in a noticable difference in performance on the brand new chip.

Early Geekbench 5 scores indicate a modest 10% faster performance in single-core operations, with little difference in multi-core scores. Even then, synthetic benchmarks made to test raw performance in a couple of controlled tests dont always think about the real-world performance of the chip.

But we are able to assume a couple of things with some extent of confidence. The A16 Bionic is a better overall chip than what came before it, especially in GPU-intensive tasks because of the excess memory bandwidth. Its also more likely to make its appearance in 2023s iPhone 15, and perhaps several devices among. (iPad refresh, anyone?)

A16 and the Quad-Pixel Sensor

Apple has harnessed the energy of the A16 in a single clear area for the iPhone 14 Pro, and thats the brand new quad-pixel sensor. That is Apples 48-megapixel main camera sensor, which captures four times as much pixels because the previous generation iPhone 13 Pro.

An upgraded image signal processor (ISP) improves photo and video capture over the board, with four trillion operations per photo quoted by Apple in its event. Apple says thatthe Deep Fusion technology introduced with the iPhone 11may appear sooner on uncompressed images, hence the product quality improvement.

iPhone 14 Pro camera system

The 16-core Neural Engine uses Apples machine learning algorithms to create AI-powered enhancements to photos, further boosting image quality.

With regards to other improvements to graphical components, Apple points to the A16s new display engine to be pivotal to make the always-on-display function. The iPhone 14 Pro display also features 1 Hz refresh rates, 2000 nit peak brightness completely sunlight, and antialiasing to erase jagged lines for a sharper image.

Apples First 4nm Chip

Possibly the biggest achievement on Apples part may be the proven fact that the A16 Bionic may be the first chip that the business has brought to advertise that uses the 4 nanometer (nm) process. That is consistent with industry aspirations to manufacture smaller and smaller components, which includes many perks.

Smaller chips have emerged to be more power efficient, that could explain Apples claims that the A16 use 20% less power compared to the A15 that came before it. A far more efficient chip means better battery life and less power wastage by means of heat.

Apple September iPhone event

An inferior process also requires less silicon, meaning that yields could be higher. This reduces the expenses connected with production, though dont hold your breath for a cost cut anytime soon thanks to the study and development costs connected with silicon fabrication (and the tiny matter of a worldwide semiconductor shortage).

Once we said inside our 2019 explainer about Intels 10nm process:

Just how each semiconductor foundry measures may differ from one to some other, so its far better take them more as marketing terms used to segment products instead of exact measurements of power or size.

The proceed to 4nm is significant, but dont read an excessive amount of into this differ from a performance standpoint.

RELATED: How Are CPUs Actually Made?

A16 and M2: Apples and Oranges

Its hard to speak about the A16 without mentioning Apples desktop-class chips, specially the newest M2 which appears in the refreshed MacBook Air and 13-inch MacBook Pro models.

The M1 and M2 utilize the 5nm processor, instead of the 4nm process utilized by the A16 Bionic. Apples M2 chip packs in 20 billion transistors, having an 8-core CPU, around 10-core GPU, and dedicated ProRes encode and decode.

Apple M2 SOC Chip Data information sheet

These chips may share exactly the same ARM-based architecture, but theyre made with different tasks at heart. Mobile processors (just like the A16) are made to be powered by way of a much smaller battery, so that they should be more power efficient than their notebook or desktop counterparts.

These differences are further exemplified by the truth that the mobile processor includes a GPU thats half how big is the M2 and features 2 CPU cores focused on performance and 4 cores focused on efficiency (instead of 4 performance cores and 4 efficiency cores on the M2).

Power efficiency has been among the big upshots of switching to an ARM-based architecture on the Mac desktop, however the move also managed to get easy for Apple to provide big performance gains.This saw the Mac Studio (using its M1 Ultra) claim the title of Apples most effective computer regardless of the Intel Xeon-powered Mac Pro.


The iPhone Pro is Apples high-end iPhone that receives all of the newest & most exciting features first. In 2021 this included a fresh ProMotion display, and before that a LiDAR scanner, during 2022 its the A16 chip and the evolution of the notch referred to as the Dynamic Island.

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